UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE THIRD CIRCUIT
March 17, 1941
Appeal from the District Court of the United States for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania; Harry E. Kalodner, Judge.
Before MARIS, CLARK, and GOODRICH, Circuit Judges.
GOODRICH, Circuit Judge.
This is an action in admiralty to recover upon the obligation for maintenance and cure.*fn1 Each side has appealed; the libellant claims that the award was too limited; the respondent claims that no award at all should have been made.
The libellant, Frank B. Loverich, was in the employ of the respondent in 1925 and was the sole employee upon respondent's oil barge called "01". According to his testimony he began to suffer hoarseness following a fire on the barge in 1926, during the extinguishment of which he was exposed to smoke and weather. The condition of his throat became serious and the hoarseness more aggravated. In June, 1933 he began to suffer from dizzy spells. He was examined by the physician employed by the company who found libellant suffering from advanced arteriosclarosis, chronic laryngitis, aphonia and left incomplete inguinal hernia. The physician recommended to the company that the man was a poor risk to work, "especially around machinery or a boat, with extreme heat." Libellant was discharged on July 6, 1933. He was given a letter of recommendation setting forth his good character and long and faithful service and stating that he was obligaed to leave only because of illness. That fall he was hospitalized in New York and was discharged after two months stay. Then he was employed by the Reading Company for fourteen months. He was again hospitalized for a few days and shortly thereafter secured another position which continued for about fifteen months. During this period his condition gradually became worse and both his voice and breathing were affected. In 1939 he entered the Philadelphia General Hospital for treatment and was operated on for a throat condition which was diagnosed as cancer. Rubber tubes were inserted in his throat to permit him to breathe and X-ray treatment continued following the operation. This therapy has relieved his condition somewhat.
The problem presented by this litigation is what, if any, is the obligation of the employer under the maritime law of maintenance and cure which, of course, really means maintenance and care.*fn2 The duty to make provision for maintenance and cure is imposed by the law and is "annexed as an inseparable incident * * * " to the relation of the parties. Cortes v. Baltimore Insular Line, Inc., 1932, 287 U.S. 367, 372, 53 S. Ct. 173, 174, 77 L. Ed. 368. The nature and extent of this obligation owed to the seaman has recently been discussed by this court in Calmar S.S. Corp. v. Taylor, 3 Cir., 1937, 92 F.2d 84, and by the Supreme Court in the same case, 1938, 303 U.S. 525, 58 S. Ct. 651, 82 L. Ed. 993. It is clear that the right of such maintenance is not restricted to those cases where the seaman's employment is the cause of the illness. It is now clear, also, that the obligation may continue after the termination of the voyage in which an injury is sustained or an illness begins. Those points are definitely settled by the decisions in the Calmar litigation.
If Loverich acquired this malignancy in the throat while employed as a seaman for the respondent then the duty of maintenance and cure arises even though it was not caused by anything incidental to his work. He did not seek to establish that the exposure to smoke and weather caused the throat cancer, although there was some medical testimony to the effect that such exposure could be a factor if there was a predisposition to that disease. Likewise, there was testimony that with this type of malignancy the patient could be active and around until it really "took him off his feet". There is a history of chronic laryngitis, improved once by treatment, but gradually becoming worse over the course of years. The company's physician suspected syphilis or cancer at the time of Loverich's discharge by the respondent. It was not until the time of the operation in the Philadelphia General Hospital that a biopsy gave the basis for the definite diagnosis of cancer. The testimony is sufficient to support the conclusion that the plaintiff's illness arose during his employment by respondent, but not that it was caused by such employment.
Then arises the question of the extent of the respondent's obligation, leaving out of consideration, for the moment, the fact that after the libellant was dicharged by the respondent he worked for some time for two other employers. In the Calmar case the seaman was suffering from an incurable disease which was subject to amelioration by surgical treatment. The award approved in this court was a lumpsum to defray the cost of meeting both past needs and anticipated future needs, based on his life expectancy. The award of the lump sum was reversed for three reasons: (1) The amount and character of medical care required in the future cannot be measured by mortality tables; (2) marine hospital services cut down the expense of treatment for the seaman; (3) the duty to safeguard a seaman "from the danger of illness without succor,"*fn3 and to guard him against improvidence is not met by the payment of a lump sum to cover expenses for medical attendantce during life. The Court said that the limit of the duty, in the case where the incapacity is not caused by the employment, was its extent "beyond a fair time after the voyage in which to effect such improvement in the seaman's condition as reasonably may be expected to result from nursing, care, and medical treatment".*fn4 Under the decision in that case libellant here is entitled to an award for maintenance and cure for a reasonable period following the term of his employment unless payment by the respondent is relieved by the libellant's subsequent employment or laches.
What difference should it make in libellant's case because following the termination of his employment with respondent he worked successively for two other employers, assuming that during such period he was suffering from the disease originating during his employment by the respondent? Upon this point we find no help in the authorities. We believe, however, that while this is something of an extension of the liability imposed under the rule of the Calmar case, it is justified by the fundamental principles upon which the obligation for maintenance and cure is bottomed. It is to be noted that this man did not voluntarily leave the respondent's employment. He was dismissed on a recommendation of the company's physician who advised the company that he was a poor risk. The physician admitted on cross-examination that upon his examination of the libellant he thought he had syphilis or cancer from the chronic laryngitis.There is no evidence of syphilis. No examination was made to ascertain whether cancer was present and the man was turned out. If he was already suffering from cancer in one of its developing stages he could hardly look to subsequent employers for the performance of this obligation. We do not see how his own self-reliance in keeping going as long as he could should preclude his recovery against this respondent.
The last question is whether all, or any part of libellant's claim, is barred by laches. This case was started in October of 1939. The libellant was discharged from respondent's service in July of 1933. The District Court, applying the analogy of the Pennsylvania statute of limitations for contractual claims, allowed recovery only for a period beginning with the six year limitation date. We agree with the lower court's theory that the obligation is a continuous one. Therefore, the failure to recover for time prior to the six year period would not necessarily bar recovery for later time if the delay in bringing the suit did not, itself, constitute laches. The analogy to the statute of limitations, however, is only an analogy and not a rule. Pan-American Trading Co. v. Franquiz, D.C.S.D. Fla. 1925, 8 F.2d 500. "Laches consists of two elements, inexcusable delay in instituting suit and prejudice resulting to the defendant from such delay. Its existence depends upon the equities of the case, and not merely upon the lapse of time." United States v. Alex Dussel Iron Works, Inc., 5 Cir., 1929, 31 F.2d 535, 536. We do not find any inexcusable delay on the part of the libellant in this case. The company's physician had advised him that treatment of his ailment was no part of the company's business and that he should see his own physician. He secured other employment and kept going as long as he could. The action was brought soon after he had been operated upon and while he was still under treatment at the Philadelphia General Hospital. Nor do we see any prejudice which has resulted to the respondent from the delay. If it were necessary to go back to questions involving existence of negligence and the like in 1926 and witnesses had died or disappeared the problem might be different. But with a claim for indemnity out of the case this problem does not arise. Medical records are as available now as earlier. We do not believe that the doctrine of laches has any application to this case.
Coupled with this question respondent further urges that if libellant makes a claim arising after March 1927 his only possible claim is under the Longshoremen's and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act, 44 Stat. 1424, sec. 5, 33 U.S.C.A. § 905. This statute expressly exempts from its provisions a "master or member of a crew of any vessel"; § 2(3), § 3, 33 U.S.C.A. §§ 902(3), 903. We believe that Loverich came within the exception as explained and applied by the Supreme Court in South Chicago Coal & Dock Co. v. Bassett, 1940, 309 U.S. 251, 60 S. Ct. 544, 84 L. Ed. 732. He was not a mere watcher of a coal chute as the claimant was in that case. He was a licensed junior engineer and water tender and qualified as an able seaman and barge master, 2nd mate and 3rd mate. He ate and slept on board the barge. During his employment he was paid by the month. He operated the entire barge, whose voyanges sometimes took six weeks. He was, therefore, in our judgment, not a harbor worker, but a seaman.
The unit cost of maintenance in this case has been stipulated between the parties as $2 per day. The case is remanded with directions to enter judgment for the libellant at this rate as follows: From the period of his discharge to the present, excluding therefrom (a) periods when he was employed for wages by other employers and (b) periods when he was hospitalized under circumstances where he was under no expense. Following the direction of the Supreme Court in Calmar S.S. Corp. v. Taylor, supra, there may be included in the discretion of the court below such amounts as may be needful in the immediate future at the stipulated rate up to and including April 30, 1941. There may also be included the cost of whatever medical care, if any, may have been reasonably incurred since the date of the trial and up to the period ending April 30. This without prejudice to any later suit by the libellant to recover maintenance and cure to which he may then be entitled.
CLARK, Circuit Judge (dissenting).
With diffidence*fn1 the writer of this dissent suggests that his learned brethren misjudge the scope of the decision of the Supreme Court in the leading case of Calmar S.S. Corp. v. Taylor*fn2 (coming up from our own Circuit*fn3). Such a misconception, if it is one, has been expected by at least one text writer. In discussing the Calmar opinion he says: "Thus the seaman is to keep biting at his cherry. But for how long remains as hazy as before. The case does indicate, however, that an incurable disease arising out of the employment - that is, an occupational disease or a disease resulting from the employer's negligence - would be treated 'more liberally', though just how differently is not stated." Robinson on Admiralty pp. 299, 300, italics ours.
The seafaring man's right to "maintenance and cure" dates back to the ancient laws of the sea.*fn4 Article six of the Laws of Oleron reads: "If by the master's orders and commands any of the ship's company be in the service of the ship, and thereby happen to be wounded or otherwise hurt, in that case they shall be cured and provided for at the costs and charges of the said ship."*fn5 The duty is relational and provides a partial job insurance.*fn6 Its character has been stated:
In this country: "The rule of maintenance and cure is a striking forerunner of workmen's compensation acts, as it is perhaps the first assertion of a duty to care for a sick or injured workman without regard to fault of either party. Unlike workmen's compensation acts, however, it does not provide damages for permanent disability, for loss of wages after the termination of the voyage, or benefits to a widown, child, or other dependents for wrongful death. Unlike liability in tort, it does not include compensatory damages for pain, suffering or disfigurement." Pillsbury, Jurisdiction Over Injuries to Maritime Workers, 18 Virginia Law Review 740, 742.
And in France:
"Pursuant to a tradition almost timeless the shipowner is obliged to furnish care to sailors who fall sick or are wounded in his service.
"That is one of the most significant aspects in which maritime law has been much more progressive than its civil counterpart: it is only comparatively recently that the law of the 9th of April 1898 has imposed upon employers responsibility for industrial accidents; ever since the Middle Ages the Laws of Oleron (articles 6 and 7) have applied to shipowners the principle of employers' liability.
"Until the law of the 4th of April 1928 set up liability insurance the maritime law was much more liberal in that respect than business law; because it was only then that employers were made responsible for disease as well as the injuries as provided by the law of the 9th of April 1898."
Translation: Danjon, Manuel de Droit Maritime, Chapitre Premier, Gens de Mer, section V, Obligations de L'Armateur, subsection 3, Traitement Medical Des Gens D'Equipage, pp. 101-102.*fn7
The cases applying the doctrine have been chiefly troubled by the implications of the word "cure".*fn8 It was early decided that it had no element of guarantee but should be interpreted in its original sense of care.*fn9 Some thought that even such narrowing imposed too great a burden on the shipowner. In England,*fn10 on the continent,*fn11 and finally by international convention,*fn12 limitations of legislative precision have been introduced. In the United States, however, the Congress has been content to leave the courts a free hand with, it is thought, not altogether satisfactory results.
The judges rejected the insistence that the duty ended with the voyage. One of them observed: "This rule may undoubtedly be subject to variations. When a course of medical treatment, necessary and appropriate to the cure of the seaman, has been commenced and is in a course of favorable termination, there would be an impressive propriety in holding the ship chargeable with its completion, at least for a reasonable time after the voyage is ended or the mariner is at home." Judge Betts in The Atlantic, Abb. Adm. 451, 480.*fn13
But just how far beyond port and how far towards the conversion of the merchant marine into a public health service the courts should go, has been puzzling. Judge Hough expressed his bewilderment: " * * * we find, therefore, neither controlling authority, nor any complete consensus of opinion, as to the point left open in The Osceola, nor has our attention been directed to any decisions dealing with the cost or reasonable expense of attempted cure; neither has the length of time during which the seaman's right persists (in the event of chronic illness or long convalescence) received much judicial treatment." The Bouker No. 2, 2 Cir., 241 F. 831, 833.
The answer to the question may depend on which of the considerations of Mr. Justice Story's classic passage in Harden v. Gordon*fn14 should be stressed. The learned Justice gave these two reasons for the rule: " * * * On the other hand, if these expenses are a charge upon the ship, the interest of the owner will be immediately connected with that of the seamen. The master will watch over their health with vigilance and fidelity.He will take the best methods, as well to prevent diseases, as to ensure a speedy recovery from them. He will never be tempted to abandon the sick to their forlorn fate; but his duty, combining with the interest of his owner will lead him to succor their distress, and shed a cheering kindness over the anxious hours of suffering and despondency. Beyond this, is the great public policy of preserving this important class of citizens for the commercial service and maritime defence of the nation. Every act of legislation which secures their healths, increases their comfarts, and administers to their infirmities, binds them more strongly to their country; and the parental law, which relieves them in sickness by fastening their interests to the ship, is as wise in policy, as it is just in obligation. Even the merchant himself derives an ultimate benefit from what may seem at first an onerous charge. It encourages seamen to engage in perilous voyages with more promptitude, and at lower wages. It diminishes the temptation to plunderage upon the approach of sickness; and urges the seamen to encounter hazards in the ship's service, from which they might otherwise be disposed to withdraw." Harden v. Gordon, 11 Fed.Cas.pp. 480, 483, No. 6,047.
The United Stats Supreme Court has not yet had occasion to take a position. The only point decided in Calmar S.S.O Corp. v. Taylor, above cited, was the one "left open" in The Osceola, above cited. The lower courts had awarded the seaman a lump sum for care after the voyage. The Supreme Court reversed the lump sum judgment but remanded with directions for furthr proceedings. Such proceedings being the determination of amounts due, the holding ex necessitate extends the shipowner's liability beyond the port. The exact scope of such extension is not prescribed. It could not be because, as Mr. Justice Stone said: "The courts below have made no findings sufficient to enable us to fix the amount which respondent is entitled to recover." Calmar S.S. Corp. v. Taylor, 303 U.S. 525, 532, 58 S. Ct. 651, 655, 82 L. Ed. 993.
Any words of our Highest Court are, however, properly persuasive and must be examined. Those pertinent appear on page 530 of the Court's opinion in 303 U.S., on page 654 of 58 S. Ct., 82 L. Ed. 993:
"There remain the questions whether in the case of chronic illness the duty continues so long as medical attendance and care are beneficial, until death if the need lasts os long, and whether a lump sum may be awarded to defray the cost of meeting the anticipated need. * * *
"But we find no support in the policies which have generated the doctrine for holding that it imposes on the ship owner an indefitely continuing obligation to furnish medical care to a seaman afflicted with an incurable desease, which manifests itself during his employment, but is not caused by it. So far as we are advised, it is without support in the authorities. We can find no basis for saying that, if the disease proves to be incurable, the duty extends beyond a fair time the voyage in which to effect such improvement in the seaman's condition as reasonably may be expected to result from nursing, care, and medical treatment."
Calmar S.S. Corp. v. Taylor, above cited, italics ours.
A comparison of these passages leads to this conclusion. The test is not "benefit" but is "improvement". As is some meanings the words are synonymous, a difference must be sought. The logical one would seem to be in assigning to "improvement" an aspect of permanency. Any scientific therapy, to use my brother's words, benefits at least in a sense of allebviation - unfortunately, it may not more.
In this view the award goes beyond the testimony. The majority decree six years (approximately) maintenance and care. The care is that "indicated" for cancer - X-rays. The sketchy examination of the sufferer. The sketcy examination of the medical witness leaves the writer uncertain as to his use of the word "improved".*fn15 He does not furthe characterize or explain and so bring the case within this dissent's interpretation of Mr. Justice Stone's dictum. For that reason, the writer prefers a remand for further proceedings. He prefers it not only because of the case at bar, but also because of the widespread implications of the problem. Both seamen and shipowners are entitled to know their rights and obligations in cases of this so dread and prevalent disease.
Although the courts have seen fit to ignore it, an illustration of confusion in the rule is found in the indiscriminate manner of its application to personnel. Formulated, in Mr. Justice Story's words already quoted, because of the "perilous service", it saves from the hazards of the garbage dump*fn16 or, as here, of Philadelphia harbor. The shipowners' attempts to call whatever floats a "vessel" for the purposes of limitation a "vessel" for the purposes of limitation of liability present an inverse analogy.*fn17