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CRANE v. JOHNSON

January 8, 1917

CRANE
v.
JOHNSON, GOVERNOR OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA, ET AL.



APPEAL FROM THE DISTRICT COURT OF THE UNITED STATES FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF CALIFORNIA

White, McKenna, Holmes, Day, Van Devanter, Pitney, McReynolds, Brandeis, Clarke

Author: Mckenna

[ 242 U.S. Page 339]

 MR. JUSTICE McKENNA delivered the opinion of the court.

Appeal from an order denying an interlocutory injunction, three judges sitting. The court took jurisdiction of

[ 242 U.S. Page 340]

     the action, citing Raich v. Truax, 219 Fed. Rep. 273, 283; Truax v. Raich, 239 U.S. 33; but denied the injunction on the ground that the averments of the complaint did not justify it.

Complainant is a drugless practitioner, he avers (we state the facts averred narratively), and has practiced his profession in the City and County of Los Angeles for the last seven years and is dependent upon it for making a living. He does not employ either medicine, drugs or surgery in his practice, nor is there anything harmful in it to the individual or dangerous to society; but he does employ in practice faith, hope, and the processes of mental suggestion and mental adaptation.

Under a statute of the State that went into effect August 10, 1913, amended in 1915, a board of medical examiners was created which was empowered to prescribe a course of study and examination for those practicing medicine (using this word in a broad sense for convenience) and to issue certificates of qualifications and licenses.

Three forms of certificates were required to be issued, first, a certificate authorizing the holder thereof to use drugs, or what are known as medicinal preparations, in or upon human beings and to perform surgical operations, which certificate shall be designated "physician and surgeon certificate." Second, a certificate authorizing an opposite treatment to that which the first certificate authorized (we are using general descriptions), which certificate shall be designated "drugless practitioner certificate." Third, a certificate authorizing the holder to practice chiropody. And the statute also provides for the issuance of what it designates as a "reciprocity certificate." Any of these certificates, on being recorded in the office of the county clerk, as provided in the act, shall constitute the holder thereof a duly licensed practitioner in accordance with the provisions of his certificate.

Applicants must file with the board testimonials of good

[ 242 U.S. Page 341]

     moral character and diplomas of a school or schools and, in addition, each applicant for a "physician and surgeon certificate" must show that he has attended four courses of study, each to have been not less than 32 weeks' duration, with some other additions; and each applicant for a "drugless practitioner certificate" must show that he has attended two courses of study, each of such courses to have been of not less than 32 weeks' duration, but not necessarily pursued continuously or consecutively, and at least ten months shall have intervened between the beginning of any course and the beginning of the preceding course; and the course in chiropody is to be of not less than 39 weeks' duration consisting of not less than 664 hours. There is a provision that, in lieu of a diploma or diplomas and preliminary requirements in the other courses, if the applicant can show to the board that he has taken the courses required by the statute in a school or schools approved by the board totaling not less than 64 weeks' study of not less than 2,000 hours for a "drugless practitioner certificate" or 128 weeks' study of not less than 4,000 hours for a "physician and surgeon certificate," he shall be admitted to examination for his form of certificate.

The statute sets out the course of instruction which the respective applicants must have pursued, giving the course that is necessary for a "physician and surgeon certificate" and the course for a "drugless practitioner certificate." The descriptions are very elaborate and technical. The statute also prescribes the manner of examination, states the exemptions from its provisions, the penalties for its violation, and ...


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