APPEAL FROM THE CIRCUIT COURT OF THE UNITED STATES FOR THE WESTERN DISTRICT OF KENTUCKY
White, McKenna, Holmes, Day, Lurton, Hughes, Van Devanter, Lamar, Pitney
MR. JUSTICE LURTON, after making the foregoing statement, delivered the opinion of the court.
1. That the right conferred by the ordinance involved is something more than a mere license, is plain. A license has been generally defined as a mere personal privilege to do acts upon the land of the licensor of a temporary character, and revocable at the will of the latter unless, according to some authorities, in the meantime expenditures contemplated by the licensor when the license was given,
have been made. See Greenwood Lake & P.J. Railroad v. New York &c. Railroad, 134 N.Y. 435, 440; Trustees of Southampton v. Jessup, 162 N.Y. 122, 126.
That the grant in the present case was not a mere license is evident from the fact that it was upon its face neither personal, nor for a temporary purpose. The right conferred came from the State through delegated power to the city. The grantee was clothed with the franchise to be a corporation and to conduct a public business, which required the use of the streets, that it might have access to the people it was to serve. Its charges were subject to regulation by law and it was subject to all of the police power of the city.
That an ordinance granting the right to place and maintain upon the streets of a city poles and wires of such a company is the granting of a property right, has been too many times decided by this court to need more than a reference to some of the later cases: Detroit v. Detroit Street Railway Co., 184 U.S. 368, 395; City of Louisville v. Cumberland Telephone and Telegraph Co., 224 U.S. 649, 661; Boise Water Co. v. Boise City, opinion just handed down, post, p. 84. As a property right it was assignable, taxable and alienable. Generally it is an asset of great value to such utility companies and a principal basis for credit.
2. The grant by ordinance to an incorporated telephone company, its successors and assigns, of the right to occupy the streets and alleys of a city with its poles and wires for the necessary conduct of a public telephone business, is a grant of a property right in perpetuity, unless limited in duration by the grant itself or as a consequence of some limitation imposed by the general law of the State, or by the corporate powers of the city making the grant. Detroit v. Detroit Street Railway, supra; Louisville v. Telephone Co., supra; People v. O'Brien, 111 N.Y. 1, 42; Woodhaven Gas Light Co. v. Deehan, 153 N.Y. 528; Mobile v. L. & N.
. There seems to have been no general law in Kentucky under which a telephone company could acquire the necessary street easement; nor until the enactment of § 4639-b of the Kentucky Statutes, was there any provision in the general law in regard to the acquisition of such rights in or upon the public roads outside of municipal corporations. In both cases the right to place and maintain poles and wires upon either streets or roads was dependent in the one case upon the municipal power of control over its streets, and in the other upon the power of the county fiscal courts by virtue of their control over county roads.
The original source of power over both streets and highways is the State. But this power of control is generally delegated in some form to the municipalities and county authorities of the State. Thus the county fiscal courts, by § 4306, Kentucky Statutes, are given "general charge and supervision of the public roads," etc. Concerning the power resulting from the grant by the State to control streets or public highways, the Kentucky court, in American Car Co. v. Johnson County, 147 Kentucky, 69, 71, said: "The right to grant a franchise presupposes and is based upon the right of the authority granting the franchise to control the property over which the franchise is granted or which is affected by it. For example, the fiscal court could grant a franchise authorizing the erection of poles along the highways of the county, as the fiscal court had control of the highways. And so, municipal corporations may grant franchises to use the streets and public ways of a city." Again, in Jackson-Hazard Telephone Co. v. Holliday, 143 Kentucky, 149, 150, the court said: "That the fiscal court having, as it did, under section 4306, Kentucky Statutes, the control and supervision of the public roads of the county, had authority before the enactment of section 4679-b of the Kentucky Statutes to grant the company the right to erect its poles along this road in the absence of a statute expressly giving the court such authority, is we
think settled by the case of Cumberland Telephone & Telegraph Co. v. Avritt, 120 Kentucky, 34." Section 4679-b, referred to, gives to telephone companies the right to place their poles along such roads subject to regulation by the fiscal courts, but it does not deal with the streets of municipal corporations. The right of such companies to occupy the streets of villages and cities was, therefore, dependent upon the charter powers, express or implied, under which they were organized.
Owensboro was granted a special charter in 1882, by which, among other things, it is given power "to regulate the streets, alleys and sidewalks and all improvements and repairs thereof." If the county fiscal courts had power to grant to such companies a franchise to place their poles and wires along the public roads of a county under the statute giving them "general charge" and right to "supervise" such roads, it logically follows, as stated in American Car &c. Co. v. Johnson, supra, that the City of Owensboro under the power to "regulate" its streets and alleys had ample authority to grant a franchise to the Telephone Company to place and maintain its poles and wires upon the streets.
The character of the business of such companies was well known. Access with their lines to the houses of their customers in the city absolutely required the right to use the public streets, either longitudinally or to cross them. By such an exertion of its power to control and regulate the use of the streets it did not authorize a new public use. Such a use was a legitimate street use and did not impose upon the owner of the fee in the street an additional burden. Cumberland Telephone and Telegraph Co. v. Avritt, 120 Kentucky, 34. Neither was the city thereby stripped of its police power over the streets. Louisville City Railway v. City of Louisville, 8 Bush, 415, 420. Nor did it undertake to grant an exclusive right. Express power to grant an exclusive street franchise has generally
been held essential. Dillon, Mun. Corp., 5th ed. §§ 1215, 1218, 1234. The grant in this case was not exclusive, and we are not called upon to deal with that question, since the ordinance here involved expressly reserves the right to make similar grants to other companies.
The great power of Congress over interstate commerce is wrapped up in the power to "regulate" such commerce. The authority of the City of St. Louis to compel the Western Union Telegraph Company to pay a rental for the maintenance of its poles and wires upon the streets of the city grew out of a charter power to "regulate" its streets and alleys. In this case (149 U.S. 465, 469), the court said:
"The word 'regulate' is one of broad import. It is the word used in the Federal Constitution to define the power of Congress over foreign and interstate commerce, and he who reads the many opinions of this court will perceive how broad and comprehensive it has been held to be. If the city gives a right to the use of the streets or public grounds, as it did by ordinance No. 11,604, it simply regulates the use when it prescribes the terms and conditions upon which they shall be used."
In City of Owensboro v. Cumberland Telephone & Telegraph Company, 174 Fed. Rep. 739, a case involving the regulation of the rates and charges of the present appellee, the power of the City of Owensboro under its charter power to "regulate" was held by the Circuit Court of Appeals of the Sixth Circuit to amply justify the grant here involved, though its duration was not involved or considered.
That the power to "regulate" embraces power to grant to such companies the right to place and maintain their poles upon the streets has been generally held: Pikes Peak Power Co. v. Colorado Springs, 105 Fed. Rep. 1; C.C.A. 8th Circuit; Detroit Citizens' Railway v. Detroit, 64 Fed. Rep. 628, 636; C.C.A. 6th Circuit. In the latter case
it was held that a charter power to "open, close and widen streets, and to prescribe, control and regulate the manner in which the highways, streets and avenues shall be used and enjoyed," was a power broad enough to permit the city to consent to the use of its streets for such purposes by any company having the requisite franchise of a street railway company. To the same effect see Dillon, Mun. Corp., 2d ed., § 575; Atchison Street Railway v. Missouri &c. Ry., 31 Kansas, 661; Southern Bell Telephone Co. v. Mobile, 162 Fed. Rep. 523, 562; State v. Murphy, 134 Missouri, 562; Brown v. Duplessis, 14 La. Ann. 842; Chicago, B. & Q. Railway v. Quincy, 136 Illinois, 489; New Castle v. Lake Erie &c. Railroad, 155 Indiana, 18.
4. It is next insisted that the grant is limited to the life of the corporation that accepted it. The assumption that this life was limited to twenty-five years from the date of the organization of the grantee corporation is erroneous. The articles of agreement did provide that the company should terminate in twenty-five years, but as this was an agreement of the stockholders inter sese, it was competent for them, if the general incorporating act under which the company was organized permitted, to extend its life. This is precisely what the Kentucky act under which the company was organized permitted. Thus it provided that corporations organized for any work of internal improvement could be formed to endure for fifty years, and those formed for other purposes, for twenty-five years. General Statutes of Kentucky 1888, c. 56, § 7, p. 764. But the same act provided that in either case the term might be extended by action of three-fourths of the stockholders. Thus, if it be assumed that the grant was limited to the life of the grantee, that life was capable of extension at the will of the stockholders, and an extension did occur as contemplated. But this ordinance was to the Cumberland Telephone Company and its assigns. It vested a
property right, capable of passing to an assignee, and did in fact pass to the present consolidated company, whose life, by express action of its entire body of stockholders, is for two hundred years. That a corporation is capable of taking a grant of street rights of longer duration than its own corporate existence is the settled law of this court: ...