APPEAL FROM THE CIRCUIT COURT OF THE UNITED STATES FOR THE EASTERN DISTRICT OF VIRGINIA
Fuller, Harlan, Brewer, White, Peckham, McKenna, Holmes, Day; Mr. Justice Moody took no part in the disposition of the case
MR. CHIEF JUSTICE FULLER delivered the opinion of the court.
In May, 1906, the grand jury in the United States Circuit Court for the Middle District of Tennessee returned an indictment against thirty corporations, two partnerships, and twenty-five persons, as defendants. This indictment contained six counts. Generally speaking, the first, second, fourth and fifth charged the defendants with violating section 1 of the act of Congress approved July 2, 1890, entitled "An act to protect trade and commerce against unlawful restraints and monopolies;" and the third and sixth counts charged them under section 5440 of the Revised Statutes. In July, 1906, the Government presented to the District Judge of the Eastern District of Virginia, at Richmond, a complaint made by Morgan Treat, United States Marshal, alleging that he believed James G. Tinsley stood indicted as aforesaid, and
annexing a certified copy of the indictment as a part of the complaint, and praying that Tinsley might "be arrested and imprisoned and removed or bailed, as the case may be, for trial before the said Circuit Court of the United States for the Middle District of Tennessee, and further dealt with according to law." Tinsley was arrested and taken directly before the district judge, who acted as committing magistrate as well as the judge to order removal. In the proceedings before the district judge, Tinsley admitted that he was one of the defendants named in the indictment. The Government relied on the certified copy of the indictment, and offered no evidence except that; and asked for an order to be made for Tinsley's commitment and removal forthwith.
The record of those proceedings states:
"And thereupon the defendant, J. G. Tinsley, offered himself as witness in his own behalf, and being about to be sworn, the United States, by its counsel, thereupon objected to the witness being sworn or to any testimony being given in rebuttal of the indictment in these proceedings, on the ground that the identity of the defendant being admitted, inasmuch as the indictment on its face charges offenses against the United States committed and triable in the jurisdiction in which the defendant stands indicted, no evidence is admissible here to impeach the indictment, and the order of commitment should be made without other proof.
"The defendant's counsel thereupon offered to prove by the defendant and other witnesses then and there present, that the Circuit Court for the Middle District of Tennessee had no jurisdiction over the person of said defendant touching the offenses charged in said indictment, in that defendant and said other witnesses would, if permitted, testify that defendant is, and has been for many years, a resident and citizen of the city of Richmond, State of Virginia, and that defendant never at any time, or at any place in the State of Tennessee, at the times charged in the indictment, did or performed, or was party to, or engaged in any act or thing in the said indictment
charged as having been done and performed in any way whatsoever by this defendant in the said State of Tennessee; nor has defendant done, or performed, or been engaged in, or a party to same or any of them in any other place or places at any other time or times whatsoever.
"Thereupon counsel for the Government renewed its objections as aforesaid.
"After hearing counsel on both sides, the court announced its conclusions as follows:
"'The conclusion reached by the court is that in a proceeding for the arrest and removal of persons charged with a violation of the laws of the United States pursuant to section 1014 of the Revised Statutes of the United States, before a United States District Judge, sitting in the State of Virginia, in which State there no longer exists the right of a preliminary examination upon a crime charged prior to the trial upon the merits, when said judge is called upon to act as well in the matter of the apprehension of such persons, as in their removal to the jurisdiction in which they have been indicted, that upon the government's presentation of a sufficient indictment regularly found by a grand jury in a court of the United States, properly charging the commission of an offense within the district in which such indictment is found, coupled with proof of the identity of the person indicted, it is its duty to properly bail such person for appearance before the court in which he is indicted, or cause him to be removed thereto.'"
It was then ruled that the testimony offered was inadmissible, and the District Judge ordered that the accused either give bail or be held for removal. Tinsley declined to give bond, a warrant directing removal to the Middle District of Tennessee was issued, and he remained in custody pending its execution. No objection was ...