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decided: January 29, 1900.



Author: Harlan

[ 176 U.S. Page 273]

 MR. JUSTICE HARLAN, after stating the facts as above, delivered the opinion of the court.

It appears from the above statement that the property in the hands of the receivers in the Clyde or insolvency suit was surrendered to the receivers in the foreclosure suit under an order that expressly reserved power in the court to adjudge and decree in the Clyde suit upon the rights of creditors asserting claims against the property of the railroad company or its income in preference to mortgage debts. Besides, the decree of sale provided that the purchaser or purchasers, or his or their assigns, under any decretal sale should, as a part of the consideration, in addition to any sum bid, take the property upon the express condition that he or they would pay and satisfy (among other specified claims) all claims theretofore "filed in this case or in either of the causes consolidated herein, but only when said court shall allow such claims and adjudge the same to be prior in lien or superior in equity to the mortgage foreclosed in this suit, and in accordance with the order or orders of the court allowing such claims and adjudging with respect thereto." And the right was dissinctly

[ 176 U.S. Page 274]

     reserved to retake and resell the property in case the purchaser or purchasers, or his or their assigns, failed or neglected to comply with the order of court in respect of the payment of such prior liens. These conditions were repeated in the order confirming the sale. So that the right of the Carnegie Company to have its claims determined upon their merits is not at all affected by the sale of the property held by the receivers in the consolidated cause, or by the fact of its transfer to the Southern Railway Company. And we add that the above reservation in the orders and decree of the Circuit Court left it open for the Southern Railway Company to contest, upon their merits, any claims allowed after its purchase under the decree of sale.

The respective rights of the mortgagees of a railroad company and of parties having claims against it at the time its property passed into the hands of receivers have been frequently the subject to consideration by this court. But as counsel differ as to the scope and effect of former decisions, it is necessary to examine then and ascertain whether those decisions embrace the case now before the court.

The leading case is Fosdick v. Schall, 99 U.S. 235, 252, 253, which related to a claim against a railroad company for rent of cars. In that case Chief Justice Waite delivered the unanimous judgment of the court. After observing that the business of all railroad companies was done to a greater or less extent on credit, and that this credit was longer or shorter as the necessities of the case required said: "The income out of which the mortgagee is to be paid is the net income obtained by deducting from the gross earnings what is required for necessary operating and managing expenses, proper equipment and useful improvements. Every railroad mortgagee in accepting his security impliedly agrees that the current debts made in the ordinary course of business shall be paid from the current receipts before he has any claim upon the income. If for the convenience of the moment something is taken from what may not improperly be called the current debt fund, and put into that which belongs to the mortgage creditors, it certainly is not inequitable for the court, when asked by the

[ 176 U.S. Page 275]

     mortgagees to take possession of the future income and hold it for their benefit, to require as a condition of such an order that what is due from the earnings to the current debt shall be paid by the court from the future current receipts before anything derived from that source goes to the mortgagees. In this way the court will only do what, if a receiver should not be appointed, the company ought itself to do. For even though the mortgage may in terms give a lien upon the profits and income, until possession of the mortgaged premises is actually taken or something equivalent done, the whole earnings belong to the company and are subject to its control." The court further said: "The mortgagee has his strict rights which he may enforce in the ordinary way. If he asks no favors he need grant none. But if he calls upon a court of chancery to put forth its extraordinary powers and grant him purely equitable relief, he may with propriety be required to submit to the operation of a rule which applies in such cases, and do equity in order to get equity. The appointment of a receiver is not a matter of strict right. Such an application calls for the exercise of judicial discretion; and the chancellor should so mould his order that while favoring one injustice is not done to another. If this cannot be accomplished the application should ordinarily be denied. We think also that if no such order is made when the receiver is appointed, and it appears in the progress of the cause that bonded interest has been paid, additional equipment provided, or lasting and valuable improvements made out of earnings which ought in equity to have been employed to keep down debts for labor, supplies and the like, it is within the power of the court to use the income from the receivership to discharge obligations which, but for the diversion of funds, would have been paid in the ordinary course of business. This, not because the creditors to whom such debts are due have in law a lien upon the mortgaged property or the income, but because, in a sense, the officers of the company are trustees of the earnings for the benefit of the different classes of creditors and stockholders; and if they give to one class of creditors that which properly belongs to another, the

[ 176 U.S. Page 276]

     court may, upon an adjustment of the accounts, so use the income which comes into its own hands as, if practicable, to restore the parties to their original equitable rights. While, ordinarily, this power is confined to the appropriation of the income of the receivership and the proceeds of moneyed assets that have been taken from the company, cases may arise where equity will require the use of the proceeds of the sale of the mortgaged property in the same way. . . . No fixed and inflexible rule can be laid down for the government of the courts in all cases. Each case will necessarily have its own peculiarities, which must to a greater or less extent influence the chancellor when he comes to act. The power rests upon the fact that in the administration of the affairs of the company the mortgage creditors have got possession of that which in equity belonged to the whole or a part of the general creditors. Whatever is done, therefore, must be with a view to a restoration by the mortgage creditors of that which they have thus inequitably obtained. It follows that if there has been in reality no diversion, there can be no restoration; and that the amount of the restoration should be made to depend upon the amount of the diversion. If in the exercise of this power errors are committed, they, like others, are open to correction on appeal. All depends upon a proper application of well-settled rules of equity jurisprudence to the facts of the case, as established by the evidence."

In Hale v. Frost, 99 U.S. 389, it appeared that a receiver was appointed in a suit brought by trustees to foreclose mortgages executed by a railroad company. He was appointed May 19, 1875, at which time the company owed employes for back wages and was indebted for current supplies. To the Union Car Spring Manufacturing Company it was indebted for springs and spirals furnished in March and April before the appointment of the receiver, and which he continued to use. It was also indebted to Hale, Ayer & Co. for supplies to the machinery department and for materials for construction purposes; and on the 13th day of February, 1873, a given amount was due them, as evidenced by the notes of the railroad company falling due on that day. The judges who

[ 176 U.S. Page 277]

     heard the case in the court of original jurisdiction were divided in opinion on the following points made by intervening creditors: 1. That the railway mortgage was a prior lien only upon the net earnings of the road, after the payment of all the operating expenses, while the road was in the possession of the company. 2. That after the default in the payment of the interest November 1, 1873, the fact that the mortgagees funded their coupons and left the company in possession of the road constituted the company their agent and trustee in equity, and they were estopped from objecting to the payment from the earnings of the road of all legitimate debts contracted by the company for operating expenses. 3. That the net earnings of the road, while in the possession of the court and operated by its receiver, were not necessarily and exclusively the property of the mortgagees, but were subject to the disposal of the chancellor in the payment of claims which had superior equities, if such should be found to exist, and that the intervening petitioners' claims had superior equities to those of the mortgagees. The petitions were dismissed and the intervenors appealed. This court, speaking by Chief Justice Waite, said: "The first question certified in this case is answered in the affirmative, upon the authority of Fosdick v. Schall. The third question is answered in the same way upon the same authority. The Union Car Spring Manufacturing Company is entitled to payment in full, and Hale, Ayer & Co. to payment of so much of their claim only as is for supplies to the machinery department. There is nothing in the case to show any specialequities in their favor in respect to that part of their account which is for material for construction purposes. An answer to the second question is unnecessary."

In Burnham v. Bowen, 111 U.S. 776, 780, 783, it appeared that the trustees of a mortgage covering all the property of a railroad company and all the revenues and income thereof, brought suit to foreclose the mortgage and had a receiver appointed. In the order appointing the receiver no special provision was made for the payment of debts owing for current expenses. When the receiver took possession the railroad

[ 176 U.S. Page 278]

     company was indebted for coal used on locomotives -- a debt contracted by the company in the ordinary course of a continuing business, and which would have been paid out of current earnings at the time agreed on if the company had remained in possession. The debt due the coal company was evidenced by the acceptances of the railroad company, which were for different amounts, maturing a month apart, thus implying, as this court said, monthly settlements of monthly accounts, with a somewhat extended credit to meet the business requirements of the railroad company. A decree was entered finding the amount due to Bowen, the holder of the acceptances, and declaring that the mortgaged property in the hands of the trustees under the decree of foreclosure was equitably bound for the payment thereof.

Chief Justice Waite, delivering the unanimous judgment of this court, said: "In our opinion the view which the Circuit Court took of this case was the correct one. The company had never paid its bonded interest. From the very beginning it was in default in this particular, yet the mortgage trustees suffered it to keep possession and manage the property. The maintenance of the road and prosecution of its business were essential to the preservation of the security of the bondholders. The business of every railroad company is necessarily done more or less on credit all parties understanding that current expenses are to be paid out of current earnings. Consequently, it almost always happens that the current income is encumbered to a greater or less extent with current debts made in the prosecution of the business out of which the income is derived. As was said in Fosdick v. Schall, 99 U.S. 235, 252, 'the income [of a railroad company] out of which the mortgagee is to be paid is the net income obtained by deducting from the gross earnings what is required for necessary operating and managing expenses, proper equipment and useful improvements. Every railroad mortgagee in accepting his security impliedly agrees that the current debts made in the ordinary course of business shall be paid from the current receipts before he has any claim on the income.' Such being the case, when a court of chancery, in

[ 176 U.S. Page 279]

     enforcing the rights of mortgage creditors, takes possession of a mortgaged railroad and thus deprives the company of the power of receiving any further earnings, it ought to do what the company would have been bound to do if it had remained in possession, that is to say, pay out of what it receives from earnings all the debts which in equity and good conscience, considering the character of the business, are chargeable upon such earnings. In other words, what may properly be termed the debts of the income should be paid from the income before it is applied in any way to the use of the mortgagees. The business of a railroad should be treated by a court of equity under such circumstances as a 'going concern,' not to be emarrassed by any unnecessary interference with the relations of those who are engaged in or affected by it. In the present case, as we have seen, the debt of Bowen was for current expenses and payable out of current earnings. It does not appear from anything in the case that there was any other liability on account of current expenses unprovided for when the receiver took possession, and there is nothing whatever to indicate that this debt would not have been paid at maturity from the earnings if the court had not interfered at the instance of the trustees for the protection of the mortgage creditors."

It was contended in that case that no part of the income, prior to the receiver's appointment, was used to pay mortgage interest or to put permanent improvements on the property, or to increase the equipment, and therefore there was no such diversion of the funds belonging in equity to the labor and supply creditors as to make it proper to use the income of the receivership to pay them. Touching that contention, this court said: "The debt due Bowen was incurred to keep the road running, and thus preserve the security of the bond creditors. If the trustees had taken possession under the mortgage, they would have been subjected to similar expenses to do what the company, with their consent and approbation, was doing for them. There is nothing to show that the receiver was appointed because of any misappropriation of the earnings by the company. On the contrary, it is probable,

[ 176 U.S. Page 280]

     from the fact that the large judgment for the right of way was obtained about the same time the receiver was appointed, that the change of possession was affected to avoid anticipated embarrassments from that cause. But, however that may be, there certainly is no complaint of a diversion by the company of the current earnings from the payment of the current expenses. So far as anything appears on the record, the failure of the company to pay the debt to Bowen was due alone to the fact that the expenses of running the road and preserving the security of the bondholders were greater than the receipts from the business. Under these circumstances we think the debt was a charge in equity on the continuing income, as well as that which came into the hands of the court after the receiver was appointed as that before. When, therefore, the court took the earnings of the receivership and applied them to the payment of the fixed charges on the railroad structures, thus increasing the security of the bondholders at the expense of the labor and supply creditors, there was such a diversion of what is denominated in Fosdick v. Schall the 'current debt fund,' as to make it proper to require the mortgagees to pay it back. So far as current expense creditors are concerned, the court should use the income of the receivership in the way the company would have been bound in equity and good conscience to use it if no change in the possession had been made. This rule is in strict accordance with the decision in Fosdick v. Schall, which we see no reason to modify in any particular."

The opinion in that case thus concluded: "We do not now hold, any more than we did in Fosdick v. Schall or Huidekoper v. Locomotive Works, 99 U.S. 258, 260, that the income of a railroad in the hands of a receiver, for the benefit of mortgage creditors who have a lien upon it under their mortgage, can be taken away from them and used to pay the general creditors of the road. All we then decided, and all we now decide, is, that if the current earnings are used for the benefit of mortgage creditors before current expenses are ...

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