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decided: December 23, 1895.



Author: White

[ 160 U.S. Page 263]

 MR. JUSTICE WHITE, after stating the case, delivered the opinion of the court.

We held in Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company v. Baugh,

[ 160 U.S. Page 264149]

     U.S. 368, than an engineer and fireman of a locomotive engine running alone on a railroad, without any train attached, when engaged on such duty, were fellow-servants of the railroad company, hence that the fireman was precluded from recovering damages from the company for injuries caused, during the running, by the negligence of the engineer. In that case it was declared that: "Prima facie, all who enter the employment of a single master are engaged in a common service, and are fellow-servants. . . . All enter in the service of the same master to further his interests in the one enterprise." And whilst we in that case recognized that the heads of separate and distinct departments of a diversified business may, under certain circumstances, be considered, with respect to employes under them, vice-principals or representatives of the master, as fully and as completely as if the entire business of the master was by him placed under the charge of one superintendent, we declined to affirm that each separate piece of work was a distinct department, and made the one having control of that piece of work a vice-principal or representative of the master. It was further declared that "the danger from the negligence of one specially in charge of the particular work is as obvious and as great as from that of those who are simply co-workers with him in it; each is equally with the other an ordinary risk of the employment," which the employe assumes when entering upon the employment, whether the risk be obvious or not. It was laid down that the rightful test to determine whether the negligence complained of was an ordinary risk of the employment was whether the negligent act constituted a breach of positive duty owing by the master, such as that of taking fair and reasonable precautions to surround his employes with fit and careful co-workers, and the furnishing to such employes of a reasonably safe place to work and reasonably safe tools or machinery with which to do the work, thus making the question of liability of an employer for an injury to his employe turn rather on the character of the alleged negligent act than on the relations of the employes to each other, so that, if the act is one done in the discharge of some positive duty of

[ 160 U.S. Page 265]

     the master to the servant, then negligence in the act is the negligence of the master; but if it be not one in the discharge of such positive duty, then there should be some personal wrong on the part of the employer before he is liable therefor.

There is nothing in the later decision of this court in Northern Pacific Railroad Company v. Hambly, 154 U.S. 349, militating against the views expressed in the Baugh case. On the contrary, that case is approvingly referred to, (p. 359,) although said there to involve a different question from that which was in the Hambly case.

The principles thus applied, in the case referred to, are in perfect harmony with the rules enforced by the Supreme Court of the State of New Jersey, within whose territory the accident happened which gave rise to the present controversy.

In O'Brien v. American Dredging Co., 53 N.J. Law, 291, 297, O'Brien sought to hold the company liable for an injury sustained by him while employed as a deck hand on one of their dredges, at the time used in dredging the James River, near Richmond, under a contract with the United States government. The ground of liability alleged was that the injury had been caused by the negligence of another employe, one Cannon, who was called the "captain" of the dredge. Cannon was authorized to employ men to work on the dredge, subject to the approval of the general superintendent, (who had his headquarters at the home office of the company,) who had power to disapprove or discharge them; the duty of the captain was to operate the dredge in said dredging; plaintiff was employed by Cannon as a deck hand on the dredge, and his duty was to aid in the operation of the dredge; and Cannon had charge of the men so employed and they were under him. The court held that while Cannon was entrusted with some authority to employ the workmen, yet with respect to the operation of the dredge in the prosecution of defendant's business, he was not a general superintendent, but a mere foreman of the gang of workmen, engaged with them in the execution of the master's work. He was a superior, and they

[ 160 U.S. Page 266]

     were inferior workmen, but all were employed in a common operation, though in different grades of service. In the course of the opinion, on the question of the risks which, it must be contemplated, are assumed by one entering the service of another, the court said:

"Whether the master retain the superintendence and management of his business, or withdraw himself from it and devolve it on a vice-principal or representative, it is quite apparent that, although the master or his representative may devise the plans, engage the workmen, provide the machinery and tools, and direct the performance of work, neither can, as a general rule, be continually present at the execution of all such work. It is the necessary consequence that the mere execution of the planned work must be entrusted to workmen, and, where necessary, to groups or gangs of workmen, and in such case that one should be selected as the leader, boss, or foreman to see to the execution of such work. This sort of superiority of service is so essential and so universal that every workman, in entering upon a contract of service, must contemplate its being made use of in a proper case. He therefore makes his contract of service in contemplation ...

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