APPEAL FROM THE CIRCUIT COURT OF THE UNITED STATES FOR THE DISTRICT OF MINNESOTA.
MR. JUSTICE HARLAN delivered the opinion of the court.
By an indictment returned May 15, 1889, in the District Court of Redwood County, Minnesota, Clifton Holden was charged with the crime of murder in the first degree, committed in that County on the 23d day of November, 1888. Having been found guilty, and a motion for a new trial having been overruled, he prosecuted an appeal to the Supreme Court of the State. That Court Affirmed upon the merits the order denying the motion for a new trial, and remitted the case to the District Court. State v. Holden, 42 Minnesota, 350. In the latter Court it was adjudged, February 18, 1890, that, as a punishment for the crime of which he had been convicted, Holden be confined in the common jail of Brown County, (there being no jail in Redwood County,) and that thereafter and after the lapse of three calendar months from the date of the sentence, and at a time to be designated in the
warrant of the governor of the State, he be taken to the place of execution and hanged by the neck until dead. Gen. Stat. Minn. 1878, c. 117, § 1.
On the 21st of May, 1890, the governor issued a warrant to the sheriff, which, after reciting the judgment, commanded and required him to cause execution of the sentence of the law to be done upon the convict on Friday, the 27th day of June, 1890, before the hour of sunrise of the day last named, at a place in the county of Redwood, to be selected by such officer, "conformably with the provisions of section 3 of an act entitled 'An act providing for the mode of inflicting the punishment of death, the manner in which the same shall be carried into effect, and declaring a violation of any of the provisions of this act to be a misdemeanor,' approved April 24, 1889."
The accused, being in custody under the above judgment and warrant, presented to the Circuit Court of the United States for the District of Minnesota his written application for a writ of habeas corpus, based upon the ground that he was restrained of his liberty in violation of the Constitution of the United States. The writ was issued, and the officers having charge of the accused made a return to which the petitioner filed an answer. The Attorney General of Minnesota appeared on behalf of the State, insisting that the detention of the petitioner was not in violation of the supreme law of the land. Upon final hearing the application for discharge was denied.From that order the present appeal was taken under section 764 of the Revised Statutes, as amended by the act of March 3, 1885. 23 Stat. c. 353, p. 437.
The principal question before us depends upon the effect to be given to the act, referred to in the governor's warrant, of April 24, 1889. That act is as follows:
"§ 1. The mode of inflicting the punishment of death shall in all cases be hanging by the neck until the person is dead.
"§ 2. Whenever the punishment of death is inflicted upon any convict in obedience to a warrant from the governor of the State, the sheriff of the County shall be present at the execution, unless prevented by sickness or other casualty; and
he may have such military guard as he may think proper. He shall return the warrant with a statement under his hand of doings thereon as soon as may be after the said execution to the governor, and shall also file in the clerk's office of the court where the conviction was had an attested copy of the warrant and statement aforesaid, and the clerk shall subjoin a brief abstract of such statement to the record of conviction and sentence.
"§ 3. The warrant of execution shall be executed before the hour of sunrise of the day designated in the warrant and within the walls of the jail in all cases where the jail is so constructed that it can be conveniently done therein; but when the jail is not so constructed, the warrant shall be executed within an enclosure which shall be higher than the gallows, and shall exclude the view of persons outside, and which shall be prepared for that purpose, under the direction of the sheriff, in the immediate vicinity of the jail, or, if there be no jail in the county, at some convenient place at the county-seat, to be selected by the sheriff.
"§ 4.After the issue of the warrant for execution by the governor, the prisoner shall be kept in solitary confinement, and the following persons shall be allowed to visit him, but none other, viz.: The sheriff and his deputies, the prisoner's counsel, any priest or clergyman the prisoner may select, and the members of his immediate family.
"§ 5. Besides the sheriff and his assistants, the following persons may be present at the execution, but none other: The clergyman or priest in attendance upon the prisoner and such other persons as the prisoner may designate, not exceeding three in number, a physician or surgeon, to be selected by the sheriff, and such other persons as the sheriff may designate, not exceeding six in number, but no person so admitted shall be a newspaper reporter or representative. No account of the details of such execution, beyond the ...